Sodom and Gomorrah

Appendix 2: Results of a Scientific Analysis of Gomorrah

In his book, ‘The Exodus Case’, Scientist Dr Lennart Moller has presented the results of his chemical analysis of Gomorrah (a 3x2 km area next to Masada). This is a summary of his conclusions:

*1. The area of ash-like material encases all the raised parts (cities on hills are easier to defend) and differs noticeably from the surroundings, in appearance and mineral type. It is covered in a thick layer of a heavy, fine-grained white-gray compressed ‘ash-like’ material, while the surrounding area is made up of large, brown flat surfaces with stones and gravel that are solid in character (quartz and something resembling feldspar). 

*2. In places, the remains have the characteristics of walls with right-angles, something not common in natural rock formations. 

*3. The entire area seems to have been exposed to a rain of burning sulphur with a large number of sulphur balls still to be found in the area, which range from a few centimetres in diameter to the size of a tennis ball. These sulphur balls are only spread over this special site, within the area that looks different. 

The points of impact of the sulphur are like “machine-gun fire” over the whole area. The surrounding area has a completely different appearance, and contains no sulphur balls.

*4. The sulphur balls have melted down through the limestone and then stopped burning. One can trace how the sulphur has penetrated it at a high temperature, showing that the sulphur was burning. After the burning sulphur had passed into the stone, the channel sealed itself up again and, with the lack of oxygen, the fire went out, so that the remains of these balls can still be seen today.

The ball was then encased in a crystalline shell, formed by the high temperature followed by cooling. If a shell is broken up, the sulphur ball can be seen clearly. 

The heat caused changes in the stone, and these can be seen as brown-red burn rings in the mineral encompassing the sulphur ball.

Indications of great heat at formation are also seen in the patterning and bulging of the laminated layers of the ashen layers, with evidence of thermal ionisation haven taken place.

*5. The sulphur is found not only in the loose, eroded material at the base of the formations, but also in the ashen-formations, which have not yet eroded.

*6. ANALYSIS Samples were collected from different parts of this area were collected and analysed, which showed what happened when the burning sulphur reacted with the rock. 

*7. Samples from the outer area (not exposed to the intensive heat) are mainly LIMESTONE (calcite or calcium carbonate - CaCO3). This corresponds to the building materials most common in the region, but differs from the natural rock of the surrounding area, which consists of quartz and feldspar minerals.

*8. The mineral samples from the hot area where the sulphur balls were, show that the dominating mineral is GYPSUM (Calcium Sulphate, CaSO4). 

*9. This means we can explain in chemical terms what happened when great quantities of burning sulphur fell on Cities built of LIMESTONE (see the Diagram opposite). 

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released from the Limestone (CaCO3) under intensive heat (in this case caused by the burning sulphur). 

At the same time the Sulphur (S) is oxidised to sulphur dioxide SO2, which reacts with water to form Sulphate SO4(2-). 

The Calcium ion Ca2(+) can then react with the Sulphate ion to form Calcium Sulphate (Gypsum CaCO4). Thus if Limestone is exposed to burning Sulphur, Gypsum is formed. 

In Conclusion, the Chemical Analysis indicates that the Limestone was exposed to burning Sulphur, which transformed it, to a large extent into Gypsum.

*10. The sulphur in these sulphur balls is 98% pure sulphur and it differs from any sulphur forms found elsewhere in nature (whether near volcanoes (crusts of sulphuric crystals or in the form of sulphur minerals), or with fossils (sulphides e.g. pyrite crystals). It is not in the form of crystals, crust nor iron sulphide, but in the form of balls of compressed powder. If gases from springs or volcanoes condense, crusts of sulphur are often formed consisting of small crystals or amorphous structures. Sulphur can be found in crystalline form with beautiful crystals of bright yellow colour. Otherwise sulphur is most commonly found in reaction products with other substances, for example as sulphides and sulphates. The sulphur in the form of these balls, occurring near the Dead Sea is only found in these specific locations. 

*11. Rows of stones, not destroyed by the burning Sulphur, are to be found in several places in the Gypsum mass, arranged in a way that indicates they were a part of house foundations, walls or street paving.

*12. The ash-like substance is a mixture of limestone, dolomite and gypsum (on a diminishing scale: CaCO3 (aragonite and calcite), CaSO4 (gypsum) and SiO2 (quartz); lesser quantities of NaCI (salt) and CaMg(CO3)2 dolomite and a small quantity of CaF2 (fluorite). In addition, it contains a high portion of fine-grained sulphur (5%) which comes from the erosion of the sulphur 

balls. The eroded matter is the same material as the structures above. Even this had previously consisted of fixed structures of limestone, that had to a large extent been transformed to gypsum on exposure to the burning Sulphur. Sulphur must have fallen over the area in an amount corresponding to at least 5% of the amount of solid rock in the area. In fact it was much more, since a large portion of the sulphur either reacted with calcium (forming gypsum) or disappeared as gas (sulphur dioxide). An enormous amount of sulphur must have fallen! 

*13. The minerals generally found in the region round the Dead Sea are stone and gravel, composed of several species of rock such as quartz and feldspar. But this limited site of Gomorrah is an area that differs from the surroundings: it is composed of another mineral, is higher than the surrounding area and looks different. It feels as if one is walking in heavy ash or sand when one climbs the eroded sides. It looks as though it has been subjected to “machine-gun fire” of sulphur. As the surrounding matter erodes, new sulphur balls appear all over the area, often encased in a crystalline shell made when the surrounding minerals which had been melted by the heat gradually cooled and solidified.

*14. Dr. Lennart Moller also notes that organic coke-like tar is found in the outer edges of the area (the cooler parts). This seems to have melted together with other minerals (non-

transformed limestone). That temperatures have been lower in the outer areas is supported by the fact that there is less occurrence of sulphur, there is a relative abundance of limestone and that carbon is found in a tar form or a form resembling coke. Tar was an important product in this area. Earlier the Dead Sea was called the “Asphalt Sea” due to the abundance of asphalt-like tar, which floated up to the surface. 

*15. Melted metal samples of pure iron have also been discovered at Gomorrah. In nature, iron only occurs as a reaction product with other substances e.g. iron ore. Pure iron is almost always of human origin. This suggests human activity, before the rain of burning sulphur. 

*16. Fragments that are probably the remains of skeletons have also been found in the area. These have been exposed to high temperatures, and have disintegrated in the same way as skeletons do (particularly vertebrae) at high temperatures. Analysis support the hypothesis that these really are skeletal parts.

In Summary, the character of the area and the chemical analyses indicates that burning sulphur truly “rained” down on this place, just as the Bible claims. The sulphur was at such a high temperature that it melted its way through the limestone, transforming it to gypsum, before dying out due to the lack of oxygen, leaving a small residue as a witness to us.



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